Estações espaciais ao redor do mundo

Com a crescente competição no espaço, alguns países construíram estações de lançamento (também conhecidas como espaçoporto ou cosmódromo) para impulsionar satélites para a órbita. Enquanto algumas dessas instalações são conhecidas ao redor do mundo, outras são secretas. Desde de a Estação da Força Aérea de Cabo Canaveral, na Flórida, EUA, até o Cosmódromo de Baikonur, no Cazaquistão, veja a seguir as estações espaciais ao redor do mundo.

Estação da Força Aérea de Cabo Canaveral, EUA  

© Joe Skipper/Reuters

Localizada no Condado de Brevard, Flórida, a instalação é o principal local do programa espacial americano e de testes de mísseis. Em julho de 1950, o primeiro míssil – o foguete alemão V-2 – foi lançado desse lugar. Além disso, essa estação foi o lugar de lançamento da primeira espaçonave do país, Freedom 7, pilotada pelo astronauta Alan Shepard, no dia 5 de maio de 1961.

Base da Força Aérea de Vandenberg, EUA

© Bill Ingalls/NASA via Getty Images

Um local privilegiado para testar mísseis balísticos intercontinentais e enviar satélites para a órbita polar, a instalação militar tem realizado centenas de lançamentos. Em 1959, a base lançou o primeiro satélite orbital polar do mundo, o Discoverer 1, que fazia parte do programa de satélite de reconhecimento da Corona. Apesar do satélite ter falhado em alcançar a órbita, ele abriu o caminho para o envio de outros satélites ao espaço. 

Cosmódromo de Baikonur, Cazaquistão

© Shamil Zhumatov/Reuters

A construção da maior e mais antiga estação espacial de lançamento do mundo começou em 1955, e hoje, ela é mantida em conjunto pelos governos do Cazaquistão e da Rússia. Em outubro de 1957, a Rússia lançou de Baikonur, o primeiro satélite artificial, Sputnik 1. A primeira missão espacial tripulada da história, Vostok 1, também teve início nessa instalação. Atualmente, ela é usada mais para enviar astronautas da Soyuz para a Estação Espacial Internacional.

Centro Espacial de Kourou, França

© Jody Amiet/AFP/Getty Images

Localizada em Kourou, na Guiana Francesa, o centro espacial é usado principalmente pelo governo francês e pela Agência Espacial Europeia. Com uma alta taxa de sucesso, a instalação já enviou ao espaço veículos como Ariane 5, Soyuz e Vega.

Centro Espacial de Tanegashima, Japão

© Jiji Press/AFP/Getty Images

Criada em 1969, em uma ilha em Kagoshima, a instalação é controlada pela Agência Japonesa de Exploração Aeroespacial e é considerada um dos espaçoportos mais bonitos do mundo. Quase todos os anos, o país lança missões de carga para a Estação Espacial Internacional. Algumas das missões mais notáveis incluí ALOS (Satélite Avançado de Observação da Terra), SELENE (Explorador Selenológico e de Engenharia) e IKAROS (Nave Interplanetária Acelerada pela Radiação do Sol). 

Centro de Lançamento de Satélite de Jiuquan, China

© Wang Ruilin/China News Service/VCG via Getty Images

Localizado em Jiuquan, na província de Gansu, o centro foi fundado em 1958 e é a estação espacial de lançamento mais antiga da China. Em 1970, foi desse local que o primeiro satélite do país, DFH-1, foi enviado ao espaço. 

Centro Espacial de Satish Dhawan, Índia

© Xinhua/Stringer via Getty Images

O espaçoporto da Índia é localizado em Sriharikota, Andra Pradexe, e foi nomeado em homenagem ao ex-presidente da Organização Indiana de Pesquisa Espacial, Satish Dhawan. A instalação serviu para o lançamento da missão espacial lunar não-tripulada, Chandrayaan-1, em 2008 e da missão Mangalyaan em 2013. Em 2017, o país enviou um recorde de 104 nano satélites para a órbita abordo de um único foguete. 

Woomera, Austrália

© STR/AFP/Getty Images

Localizada a aproximadamente 500 km a noroeste de Adelaide, o complexo é usado principalmente pela Real Força Aérea Australiana. Cobrindo uma área de 122.188 quilômetros quadrados, Woomera é a maior instalação terrestre de testes do mundo.

Centro Espacial de Xichang, China

© Liang Keyan/China News Service/VCG via Getty Images

Localizado na província de Sichuan, o centro tornou-se operacional em 1984. Ele serve como a principal porta de entrada para a órbita geoestacionária (uma órbita circular acima da linha do Equador e na direção da rotação da Terra), e é usado para implantar os foguetes Longa Marcha 4 e Longa Marcha 2E. A instalação possui duas zonas principais – Complexo de Lançamento 2 e Complexo de Lançamento 3. O Complexo de Lançamento 1 funciona como uma área de visão. 

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